مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی گروه مطالعات فرهنگی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 مترجم و پژوهشگر حوزۀ علوم اجتماعی، کارشناس ارشد جامعه شناسی،

چکیده

فراگیری و عمق فزایندۀ عملکرد شیوه‌ها و ابزارهای نظارتی در کلیۀ سطوح زندگی خصوصی افراد و ساحت عمومی جوامع در دهه‌های اخیر منجر به شکل‌گیری حوزه‌ای از دانش تحت عنوان «مطالعات نظارت» شده است. در ایران گرچه بر اشکال رسمی و دولتی کنترل و نظارت بسیار تأکید شده، شکل‌های مختلف کنترل و نظارت که در داخل خود خانواده‌ها و توسط اعضای خانواده بر یکدیگر اعمال می شوند عمدتاً از لحاظ نظری نامرئی مانده‌اند. در این مقاله ابتدا می‌کوشیم با معرفی حوزۀ میان‌رشته‌ای«مطالعات نظارت»، بعضی ابزارهای نظری و مفهومی لازم برای پرداختن به این حوزه را در دسترس پژوهشگران ایرانی قرار دهیم، و سپس به طرح یافته‌های تحقیق دربارۀ سازوکارهای مختلف نظارت و کنترل در خانواده‌های ایرانی در سال‌های پایانی قرن 1400 شمسی خواهیم پرداخت. در این تحقیق که در فاصلۀ سال‌های 1394 تا 1396 انجام شد، با 35 خانوادۀ ساکن تهران که فرزند دختر و/یا پسر بین 13 تا 23 سال داشتند، مصاحبه‌های باز و نیمه‌ساخت‌یافتۀ یک تا سه ساعته، عمدتاً در منزل آنها، انجام دادیم. در انتخاب خانواده‌ها دقت داشتیم که ویژگی‌های اقتصادی، عقیدتی، حرفه‌ای، و محله‌ای متفاوتی داشته باشند و تا حد امکان تنوع اجتماعی موجود در میان ساکنان تهران را بازتابانند. یافته‌های تحقیق معطوف به تغییر و تحولات شیوه‌های نظارت داخل خانواده از دهۀ 1360 تا دهۀ 1390 و عوامل مؤثر بر آنها، نابرابری سرمایه‌های خانوادگی در عصر خصوصی شدن امنیت، و کشمکش بر سر مرزهای نظارت بین خانواده و نهادهای رسمی همچون دولت، صداوسیما، و مدرسه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Constantly Under the Spotlight: How Families in Tehran Monitor Adolescents and Young Adults

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahal Naficy 1
  • Hadi Jalili 2

1 Dept. of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University

2 Freelance Translator

چکیده [English]

The increasing depth and spread of surveillance methods and equipment in all levels of private and public life in recent decades has led to the emergence of the new interdisciplinary field of “surveillance studies.” In Iran, although the formal and governmental forms of surveillance and control have been much emphasized, different forms of surveillance and control employed inside homes and by family members upon each other have mainly escaped scholarly attention. In this article, we will give a report of our research on the various mechanisms of surveillance and control employed within families in contemporary Iran. In this research, conducted in the years 2015 to 2017, 35 Tehran-based families with children between the ages of 13 and 23 were interviewed. In choosing the interviewees, attention was paid to their economic, ideological, professional, and neighborhood characteristics to insure that various social groups are represented as much as possible. Research results painted a picture of the transformations of surveillance methods inside families within a three-decade period, and pointed to some factors influencing these transformations. They also showed how inequalities in family resources or various kinds of “capital” can result in drastically different levels and methods of surveillance and control inside homes at a time when protection measures are mostly privatized and commercialized. The results also made clear the contestations that exist in contemporary Iran over the contours of surveillance and control between families and other institutions such as the government, public media, and schools.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Surveillance Studies
  • Family
  • Adolescents and Young Adults
  • Inequality
  • Privatization of Safety
 
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